The language ways

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Index
1) The phonemes
3) Examples of main interpretations
4) International homonyms, or false friends
5) Stylistic devices of English
Contact

2) Some game rules


Here is a color code: language English French Spanish Portuguese German Italian Russian Arabic Hindi Vietnamese Chinese Japanese, *colloquial, °archaic, [phonetic], “,” other kind of homonyms (near vowel, partially pronounced with accent).

Thanks to this technology, one can play freely with his own game, and express his ideas or feelings in a subtle and indirect way, to get rid of many uncomfortable or uneasy situations of the communication. For instance, when it’s time to leave a charming person, it’s possible to mention Pakistan, what you besought (el beso [el ’beso] = the kiss), to talk about acoustic (der Kuss [der kʊs] = the kiss), and when it’s finished ( [wěn] = the kiss).

Some false-friends, homonyms or polysemes are complementary:
- antre [ɑ̃tʁ] (fr {feminine noun} tannière) entre [ɑ̃tʁ] (fr {preposition}, {verbe} enter).
- May [meɪ] (en {noun} month 5) [méi] (zh {noun} bay / strawberry) (the strawberry season begins in May).
Some others are contrary:
- sous [su] (fr {preposition} under) su [su] (it {preposition} on).
- yeah [jɛ] (en {adverb} yes) いいえ 【いいえ ・ iie (ja {adverb} no).
- nee [ne] (Dutch {adverb} no) ne [ne] (Esperanto {adverb} no) ναι [nɛ] (Greek {adverbe} yes).
- या [ja:] (hi {adverbe} or) [ja] (ja {adverb} yes).
- Or [ɔː(r)] (en {adverbe} or) और [ɔr] (hi {adverbe} and).

Language can be used according to the secondary meanings:
The subletters are two. The swords out it’s more adrenaline. Another bravo well, give me the bacon son, ants are near. It’s announced. A perfect present would be imperative. How to pass evenings? Sporadical example. If you are, I’m too. Spelling: thinG = [g], biG = [dʒi:]. Intensive (si [si] = if => conditional tense). Ten here, at Gibraltar (点【てん ten = comma, dot, 辞【じ ji = word, sentence, discourse).

The past participle suffixes of regular verbs suffixes are quite similar to the suffixes of the preterite, so it’s possible to express the active and the passive forms simultaneously. Example: The constructed sentence => the sentence constructed.
And with another suffix: taken => untake.

            In order to refer to a previously evoked expression, with the possibility to precise the languages used in it, one can mention a term that emphasizes their use:
- Country, nationality, race or language: He’s tying leashes. The challenger man. The grease of this car. Agriculture. The deaf ransom. You are absent. The arable earth.
- City: Delicious (Delhi = India capital).
- Money: This trouble (Russian money).
- Pronoun: yo (yo ['jo] = io ['io] = I), ish (ich [iç] = I), ya (я [ja] = I). Just two of us (tu [tu] = you).
One can also express the non-utilization of meanings of some langages: for each unit a liana => without the Italian senses.
Or otherwise forbid some numbers: the Chinese (nie [ni:] & ни [ni] = never, ni [ni] = 9 in Danish & Norwegian, [ni] = 2) of the 4th cabana (ban + 【ばん ban = number).

The voiced consonants can be designated by the unvoiced ones, which may add a supplementary meaning related to the word « voice ». Thus B might represents P. D -> T, G -> K, V -> F, Z -> S and ʃ -> ʒ.
Some similar symboles can also enter in this category: 0 and O, 1, I and l, 2 and Z, 5 and S, 8 and &, A and R, + and [shí] (10), - and [yī] (1).

Science can also be described by this manner. Example: a hooligan => A (ampere, blood group) a- (atto- = 10^-18) liter H2O (Helium + Oxygène = water).


Languages

The purpose is also to marry some international homonyms, which languages become some adjectives. Herewith an example of interpretation of the 13 most spoken languages of the 6703 ones spread in the 193 countries that contains the world: (in order to compare, human being can produce 108 consonants and 28 vowels, thus 136 sounds)


1- Chinese:1.2 billion of speakers in 2005, with 4 tenses, about 60 000 hànzì (ideograms) for 45 sounds, exists since 1122 BC

2- English: 1.06 billion of speakers, 17 tenses, 26 letters for 55 sounds, 1 million of words, since the XV th Century AD

3- Arabic: 873 millions, 28 letters for 38 sounds, 1,8 million of words, since the IV th Century AD

4- Hindi: 670 millions, 26 tenses, 43 letters for 49 sounds, since the XIII th Century AD

5- French: 500 millions, 23 tenses, 26 letters for 37 sounds, 200 000 words, since 842 AD

6- Spanish: 420 millions, 24 tenses, 26 letters for 24 sounds, 225 000 words, since the XV th Century

7- Russian: 285 millions, 32 letters for 25 sounds, 125 000 words, since 862 AD

8- Portuguese: 264 millions, 22 tenses, 23 letters, at least 95 000 words, since 1290 AD

9- Malay-Indonesian: 260 millions, 320 000 words

10- Bengali: 210 millions

11- German: 190 millions, 16 tenses, 27 letters for 54 sounds, 200 000 words, since 350 AD

12- Italian: 125 millions, 19 tenses, 21 letters, at least 50 000 words, since 960 AD

13- Japanese: 123 millions, around 2000 kanji, 46 hiragana, 46 katakana, for 32 sounds, since 838 AD




1- Chinese: 1.2 billion of speakers in 2005, about 60 000 hànzì (ideograms), exists since 1122 BC.

-

C

h

i

n

e

s

e


c

h

í





[chí] (island)

c

h

í





[chí] (slow, late)

c

h

ì





[chì] (red, naked)

c

h

ǐ





齿 [chǐ] (tooth)

c

h

ī





[chī] (to eat)


h

i





hi [haɪ]



i

n




in [ɪn]



i





-i [i] (suffix of quality, action, place)

c

h

i

n

e



chine [ʃin] (porcelain or paper from China, secondhand trade, house-to-house, color, criticize ironically)




n

e



ne [nə] (not)





e

s


es [ε] (are)






s

e

se [sə] (itself)





e

s


es (is)





e

s

e

ése ['ese] (this one)






s

e

se [se] (itself)





e



e [i] (and)





e

s


es (it)

c

h

i





chi [ki] (who)



i





i (the (masculine plural))



i

n




in [in] (in)




n

e



ne [ne] (in)




n

e



né [ne] (neither, nor)




n

e



音  【ね ・ ne (sound, tone, song)




n

e



[ne] (isn't it)




n

e



ne (Turkish: what?)




n

e



ne [nε˦] (Vietnamese: to hunt, to push)




n

e



ne (Finish: they, these)




n

e



ne (Czech : no, not)




n

e



ne (Kinyarwanda: 4)




n

e



ne (Bambara: I)




n

e



ne (Afar: we)




n

e



ne [ne] (br: not)




n

e



ne [ne] (Esperanto: no, not)









t

ʃ

a

ɪ

n

i:

z


t

ʃ

á





[chá] (short and straight hair)

t

ʃ

à





[chà] (river branch)


ʃ

á





[shá] (what)


ʃ

ā





[shā] (sand), [shā] (to kill, to beat)





n

ì


[nì] (fat)





n

ì


[nì] (to frown at)





n

ĭ


(/feminine: ) [nĭ] (you, your)


ʃ

a

ɪ

n



shine


ʃ

a

ɪ




shai


ʃ

ɑː





shah





n

i:


knee






i:

z

ease






ɪ

z

is



a

i

n



['aïn] عَيْن (eye)



a

i

n



[aïn] أَيْنَ (where)


ʃ

a





chas (eye (hole in needle))


ʃ

a





chat (cat)



a





a (has)



a





à (at)



a





a- (privative prefix: absence of)



a





ah (onomatopoeia of fear or joy)



a





-as (suffix of collection)



a





-at (suffix of institution)





n

i


ni (neither, nor)





n

i


nid (nest)





n

i


nis (deny)






i


-is (suffix of action result, place)






i


y (it, there)






i

z

-ise (suffix of quality)





n

i


ni (neither, nor)






i


y (and)

t

ʃ

a

ɪ




чай (tea)





n

i:


ни (never)






i


и (and)


a





chá (tea, (Brazil) (afternoon) tea)


ʃ

a

ɪ

n



schein (apparency, light, bank note)



a

ɪ

n



ein (1)





n

i:


nie (never)





n

i


[ni] (2)





n

i


[ni] (particle after indirect object complement: date, place, purpose)

t

ʃ

a





cha (father)





n

i


ni (Norwegian / Danish: 9)





n

i


ni (Swedish: you (plural))




2- English: 1.06 billion of speakers, 17 tenses, 26 letters for 59 sounds, since the XV th Century AD.



E

n

g

l

i

s

h





l

ǐ



[lǐ] (in)




l

ǐ



[lǐ] (rite, week, present (gift))




l

í



[lí] (yellow black)




l

i



li [li:]





i

s


is [ɪz]

e

n






en [ɑ̃] (in)




l

i

s


lis [lis] (read, lily)





i



-is [i] (suffix of action result, place)





i

s


-is [i] (suffix of action result, place)

e

n






en [en] (in)



g

l

i



gli [ʎi] (the (plural used before a vowel, impure s, gn, pn, ps, x, and z, and also with the plural noun dei))




l

i



li [li] (them)




l

i



lì [li] (there)





i



i [i] (the (masculine plural))

e

n






en [en] (Dutch: and)

e

n






en (Danish, Swedish, Norway: 1)

e

n






en [en] (Finish: not)









ŋ

g

l

ɪ

ʃ



ɪ

n






in

ɪ

n






inn




l



lea




l



lee




l

ʃ


leash




l

i



lie (dregs, fasten)




l

i



lit (bed, read)





i



y (it, there)




l

i

ʃ


liche (rock for slate, lick, leerfish, lich, drink)





i



y (and)




l

i



ли (if, is it ?)





i



и (and)

ɪ

n






in (in)





ɪ

ç


ich (I)




3- Arabic: 873 millions, 28 letters, since the IV th Century AD.



A

r

a

b

i

c





b

í


[bí] (nose)




b

ì


[bì] (arm)




b

ì


[bì] (thigh)




b

ì


[bì] (200)




b

ì


[bì] (blue-green)




b

ì


[bì] (angry, big and tall)




b

ǐ


[bǐ] (this one, the other)




b

ǐ


[bǐ] (as, in the purpose of)

a






a [ə]

a






a [a] (has)

a






à [a] (at)

a






a- [a] (privative prefix: absence of)

a

r

a




ara [aʁa] (macaw)



a

b



ab [ab] (12 th month of the Hebrew calendar)




b

i


bi- [bi] (prefix 2)





i


-i [i] (suffix of quality, action, place)

a






a [a] (at)

a






a [a] (maybe, and, but)

a






a (the (feminine), her, you, at, toward, of, in, on, with, at the pledge of, among, near)

a






a [a] (àt)



a

b



ab [ab] (Interlingua: from)



a

b



ab [ab] (Latin: from, far from, near, since, by the way)

a






-a (Turkish: to)



a

b



ab (Turkish: water)

a






a [a] (Welsh: and)



a

b



ab [ap] (from, far)



a

b



ab (Volapuk: but)



a

b



ab (Dimly: water)








r

ə

b

ɪ

k


ɑ:

r





are




b

i:


be




b

i:


bee



a

b



[ab] أَب (father)

a

r

a

b



अरब [arab] (billion)



a

b



अब [ab] (now)

a






-as (suffix of collection)

a






-at (suffix of institution)

a

ʁ





-ard (pejorative suffix)

a

ʁ





are (100 m²)

a

ʁ





arrhes (deposit)

a

ʁ





art (art)

'a

ʁ

ɑ




haras (stud farm)


ʁ

ɑ




ras (uniform, blank, shaved, very short, very closely, near, raft, Ethiopian chief)


ʁ

a




rat (rodent, skinflint)


ʁ

ɑ




raz (undertow)



a

b

i


habit (clothes)





i


-is (suffix of action result, place)





i


y (it, there)





'i

k

hic (node or main difficulty in a case)

a






ha [a] (he has)

a'

r

a




hará (he will do)




b

i


vi (I saw)





i


y (and)





i


и (and)





i


e (and)

a






ha [a] (he has)





i


i (the (masculine plural))

a

r

a




ára (Guarani: day)


ʁ

a




raz (Afrikaans: chaux)





i

k

ik (Dutch: I)




4- Hindi: 670 millions, 47 letters for 49 sounds, since the XIII th Century AD.





H

i

n

d

i





d

í

[dí] (true)




d

ì

[dì] (prefix / suffix ordinal number)




d

ì

[dì] (earth, field, floor, region / country, place / location, position / situation, distance / travel)

h

i




hi [haɪ]


i

n



in [ɪn]


-i




-i [i] (suffix of quality, action, place)




d

i

di- [di] (2)




d

i

di [di] ((I) gave)


i

n



in [ɪn] (in)


i




i [i] (the (masculine plural))


i

n



in [in] (in)




d

i

di [di] (of (somebody))




đ

i

đi (Vietnamese: to walk)







'h

ɪ

n

d

ɪ



ɪ

n



inn




d

i

dis (say)




d

i

dix (10)





i

-is (suffix of action result, place)





i

y (it, there)





i

y (and)





i

и (and)





i

e (and)




d

i

die (the (feminine))




5- French: 500 millions, 23 tenses, 26 letters for 37 sounds, since 842 AD.





F

r

e

n

c

h



r

é

n



[rén] (man, personne)



e

n



en [ɑ̃] (in)

f

r

e

n

c

h

french [fʁɛnʃ] (Quebec French: kiss with tongue)



e

n



en [en] (in)

f

r

e

n



fren [fren] (Turkish: brake)

f

r

e




fre [fre] (Catalan: brake)



e

n



en [en] (Dutch: and)



e

n



en (Danish, Swedish, Norway: 1)



e

n



en [en] (Finish: not)








f

r

e

n

t

ʃ



r

e

n

t

ʃ

wrench

f

ʁ

ɛ




frai (hobnob, roe)

f

ʁ

ɛ




fraie (hobnob period, he hobnobs)

f

ʁ

ɛ




frais (cold, recent, cost)

f

ʁ

ɛ




fret (freight, freightage, freighting, shipping)


ʁ

ɛ

n



rênes ()


ʁ

ɛ

n



reine (queen)


ʁ

ɛ

n



renne ()



ɛ

n



aine ()



ɛ

n



haine (hatred)







renn- (verb radical : rennen = to run)




6- Spanish: 420 millions, 24 tenses, 26 letters for 24 sounds, since the XV th Century.




S

p

a

n

i

s

h









to fear








to lean


p

á

n




[pán] (plate, tray, chess game)


p

à

n




[pàn] (to hope, to wish, to look)




n

ì



[nì] (fat)




n

ì



[nì] (to frown at)




n

ĭ



(/feminine: ) [nĭ] (you, your)

s







's [s] (possessive = is, has, us)

s

p

a

n




span []


p

a

n




pan [pæn]



a





a [ə]





i

s


is [ɪ]


p

a

n




pan [pɑ̃]




n

i



ni [ni] (neither, nor)





i

s


-is [i] (suffix of action result, place)


p

a

n




pan [pan] (bread)




n

i



ni [ni] (neither, nor)




n

i



ni [ni] (Norway, Danish: 9)




n

i



ni (Swedish: you)





i

s


is (Turkish: is)





i

s


is (Latin: he, this)









's

p

æ

n

ɪ

ʃ






n

i:



knee


p

ā

n

ī



पानी [pānī] (water)


p

a

n




panne (malfunction)




n

i



nid (nest)




n

i



nis (deny)





i



-is (suffix of action result, place)





i



-i (suffix of quality, action, place)





i



y (it, there)




n

i

ʃ


niche ()



a





ha [a] (he has)





i



y (and)




n

i:



ни (never)





i



и (and)





i



e (and)




n




spann [] (de {verbe prétérit} spinnen = filer la laine, déconner)




n

i:



nie [ni:] (never)





i

ç


ich (I)




n

i



[ni] (2)




n

i



[ni] (particle after indirect object complement: date, place, purpose)



a





ha [a] (he has)





i



i (the (masculine plural))




7- Russian: 285 millions, 32 letters, since 862 AD.




R

u

s

s

i

a

n





s

ì



[sì] (4)




s

ī



[sī] (this, these)






à

n

[àn] (black)






ǎ

n

[ǎn] (we, me)






ā

n

[ān] (peace)



u

s




us [ʌs, əs]



U

S




US [ju: ɛs] (United States)






a


a [ə]






a

n

an [æn]




s

i



si [si] (if)






a

n

an [ɑ̃] (year)






a

n

-an [ɑ̃] (suffix inhabitant of)




s

i



si [si] (yes)






a

n

an [an] (at (accusative))




s

i



si [si] (yes)






ǎ

n

ǎn [an] (Vietnamese: to eat)









'r

ʌ

ʃ

ə

n




r

ə

ʃ





rush




ʌ

n



un-



ʃ

æ:

n



schön [ʃæ:n] (nice)





8- Portuguese: 264 millions, 22 tenses, 23 letters, since 1290 AD.




P

o

r

t

u

g

u

e

s

e





t

ú






[tú] (picture)




t

ǔ






[tǔ, tù] (spit)




t

ǔ






[tǔ] (earth, groung, dust)


o

r








or

p

o

r

t







port




t

ū






तू [tū] (you (singular))


o

r








or [ɔʁ] (gold, although)

p

o

r

t







port [pɔʁ] (port)




t

u






tu [ty] (you (singular))








e

s


es [ε] (are)









s

e

se [sə] (itself)


o









o [o] (or)

p

o

r








por [por] (for (an objective, + infinitive) through (an agent))




t

u






tu [tu] (your)




t

u






tú [tu] (you)








e

s


es (is)








é

s

e

ése ['ese] (this one)









s

e

se [se] (itself)


o

r

t







Ort [ɔrt] (place)








e

s


es (it)

p

o









po' [pɔ] (few)


o









o (or)




t

u






tu [tu] (tu)




t

u






tu [tu] (Afar: chose)




t

u






tu [tu] (Romanian: you)




t

u






tu (Latin: you)




t

u






tu [tu˦] (Vietnamese: to become religious)












ˈp

ɔ

(r)

t

ʃ

ə

g

i:

z




ɔ:

(r)








oar


ɔ:

(r)








o'er (over)


ɔ:

(r)








ore (stone, money unity)


ɔ:









awe

p

ɑ


t







pot






ə





a








i:

z


ease








ɪ

z


is


o

x

t







اخت [oxt] (sister)

p

o









peau (skin)

p

ɔ

ʁ








porc (pork)

p

ɔ

ʁ








pore (pore)


ɔ

ʁ








ore ()


'ɔ

ʁ








hors (apart)

p

ɔ

ʁ

t







porte (door, (he) carries)

p

ɔ


t







pote (friend)


ɔ


t







-ot [ɔ]/-otte [ɔt] (diminutive suffixes)








i



-is (suffix of action result, place)








i



-i (suffix of quality, action, place)








i



y (it, there)






ə





o (about)


o









ho (I have)


o









尾【お o (tail)


o









o (Turkish: he, this, this one)










ở (Vietnamese: at)




9- Malay-Indonesian: 260 millions.




M

a

l

a

y


i

n

d

o

n

e

s

i

a

n


m

á















[má] (what)

m

ā















[mā] (mother)













s

ì



[sì] (4)













s

ī



[sī] (this, these)















à

n

[àn] (black)















ǎ

n

[ǎn] (we, me)















ā

n

[ān] (peace)



l

a

y












lay [leɪ]







i

n









in [ɪn]









d

o

n

e





done ['dʌn]















a


a [ə]















a

n

an [æn]

m

a

l














mal [mal] (bad)

m

a















ma [ma] (my)



l

a













la



l

à



















i

n









in-












e

s




es [ε] (are)













s

i



si [si] (note, if)















a

n

an [ɑ̃] (year)















a

n

-an [ɑ̃] (suffix inhabitant of)









d

o







[do] (2)

m

a

l

a













mala (bad (feminine))









d

o

n






don [don] (mister)












e

s




es (is)













s

i



si [si] (yes)









d

o







do [do] (de)












e

s




es (it)















a

n

an [an] (at (accusative))

m

a















ma [ma] (but)









d

o







do [do] (je donne)













s

i



si [si] (yes)









đ

ó







đó (Vietnamese: there)









đ







đỏ (Vietnamese: red)









d







dở (Vietnamese: bad)















ǎ

n

ǎn [an] (Vietnamese: to eat)


















m

æ

l

e

ɪ


ˌɪ

n

d

əˈ

n

i:

ʒ

ə

n





l

é

i












[léi] (to tire, tired, accumulate, continue / progressive)



l

é

i












[léi] (surname)











n

ì





[nì] (fat)











n

ì





[nì] (to frown at)











n

ĭ





(/feminine: ) [nĭ] (you, your)

m

æ

l














mall



l

e

ɪ












lei







ɪ

n









inn

m

â















ﺎﻣ [mâ] (not)

m

a'















ماء [ma'] (water)

m

a

l














[mal] مال (money)

m

a















mas ()

m

ɑ















mât ()

m

ɑ

l














mâle (mâle)

m

a

l














malle (trunk)



l

ɛ

j












laye ((he) crosses or separates wood)





i












-is (suffix of action result, place)





i












-i (suffix of quality, action, place)





i












y (it, there)









d

ə







de











n

i





ni (neither, nor)











n

i





nid (nest)











n

i





nis (deny)













ʒ

œ

n


jeune (young)


a















ha [a] (he has)



l

e

i












ley (law)





i












y (and)











n

i





ni (neither, nor)











n

i:





ни (never)












i





и (and)


a















ha [a] (he has)



l

e













le [le] (they (feminine))



'l

ɛ

i












lei (she, you)

















lei (Dutch: slate)

















ley (Sranan: to cheat, to deceive, to lie)




10- Bengali: 210 millions.




B

e

n

g

a

l

i


b

è

n





[bèn] ((to go) toward, to go to, to come near)




g

ǎ



[gǎ] (small)






l

ǐ

[lǐ] (in)






l

ǐ

[lǐ] (rite, week, present (gift))






l

í

黧  [lí] (yellow black)





a



a [ə]

b

e

n





ben [bɛ̃] (race of plant)





à



à [a] (at)







i

-i [i] (suffix of quality, action, place)





a



a [a] (at)





a



a [a] (at)





a

l

i

ali ['ali] (wings)






l

i

li [li] (them)






l

ì

lì [li] (there)







i

i (the (masculine plural))

b

e

n





ben [ben] (Turkish: I, me)

b

e

n





ben (Danish: bone, leg)

b

e

n





ben (Dutch: bin, panier)

b

e

n





ben (norvégien : os, jambe)

b

e

n





ben (suédois : os, jambe)

b

e

n





ben (occitan : bien, fort, beaucoup, très)

b

e

n





ben (catalan : bien, fort, tout, très)

b

e

n





ben [‘bɛn] (interlingua : bien)









b

ɛ

n

g

æ

l

ɪ





g




gall





l

ɪ

alley






l

lea






l

lee






l

li

b

ɛ

n





benne ()




g

ɑ



gars (man)





a

l

i

allie






l

i

lie (dregs, fasten)






l

i

lit (bed, read)







i

-is (suffix of action result, place)







i

y (it, there)

b

e

n





ven (ils voient, viens !)





a



ha [a] (he has)







i

y (and)






l

i

ли (if, is it ?)







i

и (and)







i

e (and)





a



ha [a] (he has)




11- German: 190 millions, 16 tenses, 27 letters for 54 sounds, since 350 AD.




G

e

r

m

a

n




è

r





[èr] (2)


é

r





[ér] (and, but, while)


ě

r





[ěr] (ear)




m

à

n


[màn] (slow)




m

ǎ

n


[mǎn] (full, to fill)




m

a

n


man [mæn]





a



a [ə]





a

n


an [æn]




m

a

n


man [mɑ̃] ()


e

r





er [e:r] (he)




m

a

n


man [man] (we)




m

a

n


man [man] (Welsh: place)


e

r





er (Turkish: soldier)









ˈd

ʒ

ɜː

(r)

m

ə

n







ʌ

n

un-





m

a

n

مَنْ (who?)





m

ə


me (me)





m

œ


meus ((you) move)





m

a

n

mânes [man] (Roman gods of hell, dead souls)





m

a

n

manne [man] (abondant or unpredicted money or food, God's word)





m

a

n

Mann (man)





'm

a

mand (Danish: man)





m

a

n'

mann (Norway: man)





m

a

n

[man] من (Farsi: I)




12- Italian: 125 millions, 19 tenses, 21 letters.




I

t

a

l

i

a

n





l

ǐ



[lǐ] (in)




l

ǐ



[lǐ] (rite, week, present (gift))




l

í



黧  [lí] (yellow black)

i

t






it [ɪt]



a





a [ə]






a

n

an [æn]


t

a





ta (your (followed by feminine))





i



-i (suffix of quality, action, place)


t

a

l




tal [tal] (such)



a

l




al [al] (at the)


T

a

l




Tal [ta:l] (valley)



a

l

i



ali ['ali] (wings)




l

i



li [li] (them)




l

ì



lì [li] (there)





i



i (the (masculine plural))









ɪ'

t

æ

l

j

ə

n


i:

t






eat



l

ɪ



alley






ʌ

n

un-


t

a

l




[tal] تَلّ (hill)



a

l




[al] ٩ل (the)


t

a





tas (heap)


t

e





te (you (object complement)



a

l




halle ['al] (hall)



a





a [a] (at)



a





ha [a] (he has)



a





a [a] (at)



a





ha [a] (he has)




13- Japanese: 123 millions, around 2000 kanji, 46 hiragana, 46 katakana, for 32 sounds, since 838 AD.




J

a

p

o

n

e

s

e





o

n




on [ɒn]





n

e



ne [nə] (not)






e

s


es [ε] (are)







s

e

se [sə] (itself)



p

o

n

e



pone [po'ne] (he puts)






e

s


es (is)






e

s

e

ése ['ese] (this one)







s

e

se [se] (itself)

j

a







ja [ja] (yes)






e

s


es (it)



p

o'





po' [pɔ] (few)





n

e



ne [ne] (in)





n

e



né [ne] (neither, nor)





n

e



音  【ね ・ ne (sound, tone, song)





n

e



[ne] (isn't it)





n

e



ne (Turkish: what?)





n

e



ne [nε˦] (Vietnamese: to hunt, to push)





n

e



ne (Finish: they, these)





n

e



ne (Czech: no, not)





n

e



ne (Kinyarwanda: 4)





n

e



ne (Bambara: I)





n

e



ne (Afar: we)





n

e



ne [ne] (br: not)





n

e



ne [ne] (Esperanto: no, not)










,d

ʒ

æ

p

ə'

n

i:

z







n

ì


[nì] (fat)






n

ì


[nì] (to frown at)






n

ĭ


(/feminine: ) [nĭ] (you, your)





ə




a





ʌ

n



un-







i:

z

ease







ɪ

z

is



a

p





आप [ap] (you (polite))

d

ʒ

a






d’jà (already)


ʒ

a

p





jappe ((he) barks)



'a

p





happe ()




p

æ




peu (few)




p

æ




peut ((he) can)






n

i


ni (neither, nor)






n

i


nid (nest)






n

i


nis (deny)







i


-is (suffix of action result, place)







i


-i (suffix of quality, action, place)







i


y (it, there)






n

i


ni (neither, nor)







i


y (and)






n

i:


ни (never)







i


и (and)







i


e (and)



a

p





ab [ap] ( as soon as)






n

i:


nie (never)







i


i (the (masculine plural))






n

i


[ni] (2)






n

i


[ni] (particle after indirect object complement: date, place, purpose)






n

i


ni (Norwegian / Danish: 9)






n

i


ni (Swedish: you (plural))



Come on it’s not so far. = 2.
=> qu’ [k] ({adverb} only) + komm- [kɔm] ({verb} radical of “kommen” = to come) + homme [ɔm] ({masculine noun} man) + home + Mo [ɛmo] (aime mot(s) = “love word(s)”) + money + oн [on] ({pronoun} he) + neat on eat it is not naughty (no T) knot + Not [no:t] ({feminine noun} distress) + note of + fa [fa] (do) + fahr- [fa:ʀ] ({verb} radical of “fahren” = to drive) + sofa so far + phare [faʁ] ({masculine noun} lighthouse, lamp).

Thus we can expand this device to two languages. Example: tedesko = German in Italian.


Clock


The military clock can be used: on can express a direction or a letter, through the face of the clock.

Example: a yoghourt for calcium = 4 hours = 120° on the right. The right = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (or A, B, C, D, E and M, N, O, P, Q),
We can also define some preliminary associations between numbers and the people who are present in a room, or a language, or designate 2 persons after the letter “W”, example: power (= +3 & -3, heure [œʁ] = hour).


This scheme allows some metaphors like « to descend »: to go from a number near midday to one near 6h00. It's cumulative with a sound and/or idea which go from a northern language to a southern one.

In order to be clearer, we can insist by redounding senses:
And today I’m going nowhere” [ænd tə’deɪ aɪ m ‘gəʊɪŋ ‘nəʊwɛər] = 0 = no moving, or towards midday.

Some expressions can make understand an addition or a suppression of some results. Example: less than = -1 instead of +1. & a glass of water = +6 instead of -6.

At a given moment, from a certain number of sentences, it’s possible to recreate the personal (phonetic, written in latin fonts, chinese ones, etc) key of a person, which must be complementary to the international phonetic key. The following examples show how to define it with numbers:

He seeks too, why she won for them: before to go she ate.
English numbers: 6, 2, 1, 4, 4, 2, 8.

Thank you for each cue, she keeps in queue to go to the hatch for the itch.
Japanese numbers: 3 [san], 9 [kju], 1 [itʃ(i)], 9, 4 [ʃi], 9, 5 [go], 8 [hatʃ(i)], 1.

His bravo seems odd, copy at home, the chest in under the tree.
Russian numbers: 7 вóсемь [vosim'], 5 пять [pjat'], 6 шесть [ʃɛst'], 3 три [tri].

Some sounds express several numbers, so we can use them to mix some hours, areas…
[di] = 2/10, [ni] = 2/9 (Norwegian, Danish), [saba] = 3 (Bambara)/7, [shi] = 4/10, [si] = 4/6.
Example: dishes => 2+10+4+10 => from 2:10 to 4:10…

The importance of some second degrees can be higher according to message canal. Actually the listening will favorise the homophones understanding, whereas the reading the homographes one and the hidden meanings in accents and punctuations. In order to set a priority in the recipient data treatment, it's possible to reiterate certain meanings :

-I said really read it => re-lis read-dites.
(lis [li] = (you) read, dites [dit] = (you) say)

Generally all games are compatible : dices, dominos, cars races, cards...


Capital questions

It’s well on don’t go in this district.
=> Because it’s belongs to the barbarian you knighted king, domestic problem it is.

Where can I rush a pursued man?
=> Over there are moss, cows and nobody to find him.

Did you see his pain?
=> Yes he was the mad reader.

What cue, baby, do we say the morning?
=> Have a nice day!


Mathematics

The possible number of an word meaning m m(X) is function of its morphemes X (smallest units of sens, for instance the « bake » of baker).
By mixing these morphemes, m(X) = X + X(X-1) + X(X-1)(X-2) … + 0.
For example if we have 8 morphemes in a word, m(8) = 8 + 56 + 336 + 1680 + 6720 + 20160 + 40320 + 40320 = 109 600 potential senses for this word.

In the purpose of enriching reflexions, it's possible to add some lexemes for each known element:


Index
1) The phonemes
3) Examples of main interpretations
4) International homonyms, or false friends
5) Stylistic devices of English
Contact


Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_number_of_native_speakers
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_des_langues_par_nombre_total_de_locuteurs#cite_note-LS-0
http://www.populationdata.net/palmareslangues.php
http://www.elodil.com/files/modules_primaire/AvosMarquesmai2006.pdf
http://www.academie-francaise.fr/langue/index.html

Copyleft
17/07/10